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Fermentation technology to produce Acarbose

1. Introduction

Acarbose is an anti-diabetic drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and, in some countries, prediabetes. It is sold in Europe under the brand name Glucobay (Bayer AG), in North America as Precose (Bayer Pharmaceuticals), and in Canada as Prandase (Bayer AG). It is an inhibitor of alpha glucosidase, an enteric enzyme that releases glucose from larger carbohydrates.Acarbose is an oligosaccharide which is obtained from fermentation processes of a microorganism, Actinoplanes utahensis, and is chemically known as O-4,6-dideoxy-4-[[(1S,4R,5S,6S)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-( hydroxymethyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl] amino]- -D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-O--D-glucopyranosyl-(1->4)-D-glucose. It is a white to off-white powder with a molecular weight of 645.6.

2. Mechanism of action

Acarbose inhibits enzymes (glycoside hydrolases) needed to digest carbohydrates: specifically alpha-glucosidase enzymes in the brush border of the small intestines and pancreatic alpha-amylase. Pancreatic alpha-amylase hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine, whereas the membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the small intestine. Inhibition of these enzyme systems reduces the rate of digestion of complex carbohydrates. Less glucose is absorbed because the carbohydrates are not broken down into glucose molecules. 

3. Performance Values

Final titre: 8-9g/lt

Fermentation time: 168 ± 24hrs

Recovery yield: 55%                          

4. Contact

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